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Tonisha "Dr. Toni" Pinckney, Ph.D., MSCJ, MAFF, CFE, CBE, CSCD, CCII


Dr. Tonisha "Dr. Toni" Pinckney is a multi-faceted leader in forensic accounting, financial litigation, and risk assessment, holding a Ph.D., MSCJ, MAFF, and CFE among her credentials. Appointed to various leadership roles, she has been an advocate for gender equality, mental health, and victim support, serving on advisory councils from George Washington University to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE). A seasoned educator, she has taught at multiple esteemed institutions and earned the 2018 Outstanding Mentor of the Year Award.

Her professional expertise spans from business and ethics to financial crimes and mediation. A dynamic speaker, Dr. Toni covers a broad spectrum of topics, leaving her audience transformed. In her corporate and consultancy roles, most recently at MUFG and US Bank, she has been a transformational leader in risk management. Throughout her career, she has made a multi-million-dollar impact across a diverse client base.

A survivor of multiple life challenges, she channels her experiences into advocacy and education. A proud mother and an avid gamer, Dr. Toni values work ethic, excellence, and justice. She currently resides in the Charlotte, NC metro area after nearly a decade in Massachusetts. Dr. Tonisha Pinckney is not just a professional; she's a phenomenon.

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This image depicts a diverse group of professionals engaged in a serious yet collaborative discussion about strategies to prevent fraud in a non-profit setting, with digital screens and charts highlighting various types of fraud.

Understanding and Combating 10 Most Impactful Types of Fraud in Non-Profits

November 15, 20235 min read

“ I firmly believe that the key to safeguarding non-profits against fraud lies not just in stringent controls, but in cultivating an organizational culture rooted in transparency and ethical vigilance.” - Dr. Tonisha M. Pinckney




In the non-profit sector, the impact of fraud can be profound, affecting not only finances but also organizational trust and reputation. Below, we explore the ten most prevalent types of fraud non-profits face, their specific impacts, detailed prevention and detection strategies, and relevant data to underscore their significance.

image illustrates the hidden influences and dual nature of challenges faced by non-profit organizations.

1. Embezzlement

Defined: Embezzlement occurs when an individual within the organization misappropriates funds.

Impact: This leads to direct financial losses and can severely damage the trust donors and stakeholders have in the organization. According to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), non-profits face a median loss of $75,000 per embezzlement case.

Prevention/Detection: Implement segregation of duties, conduct unscheduled financial audits, and foster an organizational culture that promotes ethical behavior. Regular financial reporting to the board can also act as a deterrent.

2. Skimming

Defined: Skimming involves the theft of cash before it is recorded in the organization's financial system.

Impact: Skimming can persist undetected over time, cumulatively leading to substantial losses. It also erodes the integrity of financial records, complicating financial management.

Prevention/Detection: Use tamper-evident deposit bags, perform regular and random audits, and establish clear cash handling procedures. Training staff to recognize signs of skimming is also crucial.

3. Grant Fraud

Defined: This encompasses the misuse of grant funds or falsification of grant applications.

Impact: It risks legal consequences, the need to repay misused funds, and the potential loss of future funding opportunities. Grant fraud undermines the credibility of the organization in the eyes of funders.

Prevention/Detection: Implement strict grant management protocols, conduct regular internal audits, and establish a transparent reporting system for grant utilization.

4. Payroll Fraud

Defined: Payroll fraud includes ghost employees, inflated hours, and unauthorized raises.

Impact: Such practices drain financial resources and can create an atmosphere of distrust among staff. It can also lead to tax and legal issues.

Prevention/Detection: Regularly review and audit payroll records, verify employee data, and implement automated payroll systems with built-in checks to prevent unauthorized changes.

5. False Billing

Defined: False billing involves paying for non-existent goods or services or at inflated prices.

Impact: This type of fraud can result in significant financial loss and may involve collusion, further compromising the integrity of the organization.

Prevention/Detection: Establish strict procurement processes, verify all invoices against actual goods or services received, and maintain a pre-approved vendor list.

6. Expense Reimbursement Fraud

Defined: This occurs when employees claim inflated or non-business related expenses.

Impact: Reimbursement fraud not only leads to financial loss but can also create a culture where dishonesty is overlooked, potentially leading to other types of fraud.

Prevention/Detection: Implement a detailed expense policy, require original receipts for all claims, and conduct random audits of expense reports.

7. Conflict of Interest

Defined: A conflict of interest arises when personal interests of staff or board members clash with those of the organization.

Impact: This can lead to decisions that are not in the best interest of the non-profit, potentially resulting in financial loss or damage to the organization’s reputation.

Prevention/Detection: Develop a conflict of interest policy, require regular disclosures from staff and board members, and have a process to manage potential conflicts.

8. Cyber Fraud

Defined: Cyber fraud includes activities like hacking, phishing, and other cyber attacks.

Impact: Cyber attacks can lead to significant financial loss, data breaches, and loss of donor trust. The FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center reported losses exceeding $4.2 billion due to cybercrime in 2020 alone.

Prevention/Detection: Invest in strong cybersecurity measures, conduct regular cybersecurity training for staff, and have an incident response plan in place.

9. Fundraising Fraud

Defined: Fundraising fraud involves soliciting donations under false pretenses.

Impact: Such fraudulent activities can severely damage the reputation of the organization and erode public trust, which is essential for fundraising efforts.

Prevention/Detection: Monitor fundraising activities closely, ensure transparency in how funds are used, and educate the public about legitimate fundraising campaigns.

10. Identity Theft

Defined: This involves the unauthorized use of the organization’s or its members’ identity to obtain credit or funds.

Impact: Identity theft can lead to financial losses and negatively impact the organization’s credit standing. It also requires significant time and resources to resolve.

Prevention/Detection: Secure sensitive information, regularly monitor financial statements, and train staff to recognize signs of identity theft.

By understanding these risks and implementing targeted strategies, non-profits can better protect themselves from fraud, ensuring that they can focus on their mission and maintain the trust of their supporters.

*Data and statistics cited from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) and the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3).

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In navigating the complexities of fraud prevention and detection, non-profits can greatly benefit from expert guidance and tailored solutions. Revelatus Advisory & Consulting, LLC, led by Dr. Tonisha Pinckney, provides specialized services in forensic accounting, fraud examination, and financial crime prevention. With extensive experience in risk assessment, financial litigation, and cybercrime, Revelatus Advisory & Consulting offers a comprehensive approach to safeguarding your organization against fraud.

Our services include:

  • Risk Assessment and Management: Identifying potential vulnerabilities within your organization and developing robust strategies to mitigate these risks.

  • Fraud Prevention Training: Empowering your team with the knowledge and skills to recognize and prevent various types of fraud.

  • Internal Control Review and Enhancement: Evaluating and strengthening your internal controls to prevent fraudulent activities.

  • Financial Forensic Analysis: Conducting in-depth analyses to uncover and address any instances of fraud.

  • Crisis Management and Response: Providing expert guidance in the event of a fraud incident to minimize impact and restore integrity.

At Revelatus Advisory & Consulting, we understand the unique challenges faced by non-profits and are dedicated to protecting your organization's financial health and reputation. Let us partner with you to create a safer, more secure, and ethical environment for your non-profit to thrive.

For more information on how we can assist your organization, visit our website or contact us directly.

Revelatus Advisory & Consulting, LLC - Your Partner in Fraud Prevention and Financial Integrity.

non-profit fraudforensic accounting fraud preventioninternal controlsembezzlementrisk assessmentfinancial integritycybercrimeethical vigilancetransparency in non-profitsfundraising fraudpayroll fraudconflict of interest financial forensic analysisRevelatus Advisory & ConsultingDr. ToniTonisha PinckneyDr PinckneyFraud examinerInvestigationlitigation support
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Dr. Tonisha M. Pinckney

Dr. Toni Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) | Master Analyst in Financial Forensics (MAFF) | Forensic Accounting | Risk Management | Financial Litigation | Civil & Criminal Mediation/Negotiation | Consulting Expert Witness | Leadership Coach | Author

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